Just a hunch. The Pulse Asia survey conducted last October (which I had already referred to in remarks before the Rotary Club of Manila and in a column that followed) will be the topic of discussion tomorrow. The survey found that, to voting-age Filipinos, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is the "most corrupt President in history." (The email I got from Pulse Asia was charmingly titled "Additional Findings on Graft and Corruption.")
Here’s Table 2 of those additional findings.
(Again, and as in the Katrina photo below, click on the image to enlarge it. This table, however, is considerably less fetching. A word to the wise.)
While the question is asked against a considerably longer horizon ("sa kasaysayan ng Pilipinas"), note that the options are limited to the last five presidents: Marcos, Aquino, Ramos, Estrada, and Arroyo.
Under such limits, Arroyo is a clear "winner" over Guinness-record-holder Marcos (the national numbers have the standard margin of error of plus or minus 3). Definitely not good news for Malacanang.
But before we wave copies of the latest Pulse Asia survey in the streets, remember that this very survey found that only a quarter of voting-age Filipinos were willing to take to the streets to force the resignation of a corrupt president. The limits of outrage, indeed.